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Sunday, 22 June 2014

Koh Tral: Is it a Cambodian or a Vietnamese island?

The above is the 1820-1829 John Crawfurd's map of Cochin China showing Koh Tral, which was written as "Koh Dral". So it was a Khmer island back in 1820. According to Bora Touch, Crawfurd's predecessor, Alexander Hamilton, who visited Banteay Meas 

(Hatien) in Cambodia in 1718, called the island "Quadrol" (Koh 

Tral) in his published account of his journey (A New Account of the 

East Indies: Giving an Exact and Copious.....Vol 2, p206).

By Khmerization
19th June 2014

Recently, the Diplomat website has published an article by Jeff Mudrick titled “Cambodia’s ImpossibleDreams: Koh Tral” which he argued unequivocally that historically Koh Tral (Phu Quoc) belongs to Vietnam.
I intend to write this article in an attempt to put the historical context of Koh Tral from the Cambodian perspective.

The Origin of the Vietnamese people

The first Vietnamese state was known in Vietnamese as Văn Lang, which existed in 2879 BC and which was situated in Red River Valley that flows from the southern Chinese province of Yunan to the Gulf of Tonkin near Hanoi. It was a vassal state of China and existed under Chinese domination for over 1000 years.
In AD 938, the Vietnamese lord Ngô Quyền defeated the forces of the Chinese Southern Han state at Bạch Đằng River and achieved full independence for Vietnam after a millennium of Chinese domination and the country was renamed as Đại Việt (Great Viet).

Vietnam’s Southward Expansion

Between the 11th and 18th centuries, Vietnam expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến ("southward expansion"), eventually conquering the kingdom of Champa, which situates in central Vietnam near the imperial city of Hue. After conquering Champa, Vietnam moved to conquer part of the Khmer Empire, known as Kampuchea Krom which controls Koh Tral, an area stretches from Saigon down to the Gulf of Thailand.
Vietnam’s annexation of Champa in early 10th century was done through a royal marriage of Princess Huyen Tran, the daughter of King Tran Anh Trong (1293-1314) to the King of Champa as a trap to annex the Cham territory. Through this marriage, Vietnam had achieved its complete annexation of Champa in 1673.
After its complete annexation of Champa, Vietnam then began its campaign of annexation of Khmer provinces in today’s southern Vietnam, in an area stretching from Saigon downward to the Gulf of Thailand in 1623. Vietnam’s annexation of the 21 provinces of Kampuchea Krom was only completed in the 1860s.
Vietnam’s annexation of Cambodian southern territory began in 1620 because Khmer King Chey Chetha II (1618-1628) had fallen into a similar trap of Vietnam as that of the king of Champa in 1307. The warlord Nguyen Hi Tong (1613-1635) presented his daughter, Princess Ngoc Van, to Khmer King Chey Chetha II in exchange for territorial and commercial interests. Through the princess' intervention in 1623, the Cambodian Court of Udong gave permission for the Vietnamese to conduct trade in Morea (Baria) and Prey Nokor, which was later changed its name to Saigon. According to some historians, the Vietnamese Court of Hue only asked to use certain areas in Prey Nokor to train their militaries for wars against the Chinese and that they would be returned to the Khmer authority in 5 years after the war with the Chinese was over. But after the death of King Chey Chetha II in 1628, the areas of Prey Nokor, Morea, Do Nai, and Toul Ta Mauk were flooded with the Vietnamese warlords. Other provinces subsequently fell to Vietnam: Kampong Srakartrey (Bienhoa) in 1651; Prah Suakea or Morea (Baria) in 1651; Kampong Kou (Long An) in 1669; Tuol Ta Mauk in 1696; Kampong Krabey Prei Nokor (Saigon) in 1696.

In 18th century, Mac Cuu, a Chinese merchant, received a permission from Khmer King Ang Eum (1710-22) to control the Kampuchea Krom provinces of Peam (Hatien), Kramounsar (Rach Gia) and Koh Tral ( Phu Quoc island ) in 1722. The provinces of Mesar (My Tho), Kampong Reussey (Ben Tre), Koh Gong (Gocong) and Peam Ba-rach ( Long Xuyen) were lost to Vietnam in 1732. Phsar Dek (Sadec), Long Ho (Vinh Long), Mot Chrouk (Chaudoc) in 1757, Raung Damrey (Tay Ninh) in 1770, Prek Reussey (Can Tho) in 1758. The provinces of Preah Trapeang (Tra Vinh), Khleang ( Soc Trang), Pol Leav (Bac Lieu), and Teuk Khmao (Ca Mau) were seized in 1775 and until 18th century the whole 21 provinces of Kampuchea Krom were in total control of Vietnam in 1840.

Koh Tral: Whose island is it anyway?

Reading the above history of Vietnam’s existence and its expansionistic annexations, one has the impression that, geographically, legally and historically, Koh Tral does not belong to Vietnam, but to Cambodia.
There are other evidences which proved Koh Tral belongs to Cambodia. Pottery display in Phu Quoc (Koh Tral) Museum, which were unearthed from the ruined Khmer port of Oc Eo (O’Keo in Khmer which means “precious canal”) in the Mekong Delta region, which was referred to as the Oc Eo period (1st -7th century AD), suggests at least a proto-Khmer presence since the 1st century AD. In the 1st century AD, Vietnam only controlled the areas around Hanoi and the Gulf of Tonkin – nowhere near Koh Tral which situated thousands of miles from Hanoi to the south. On the other hand, during this same period Cambodia controlled the areas stretching from present day Saigon (known in Khmer as “Prey Nokor”) to Gulf of Thailand. Cambodia continues to control Kampuchea Krom (southern part of Vietnam) until the late 19th century - until 1840 to be exact. Koh Tral, then and now, situates only 15km from the Cambodian coastal town of Kep and Kampot – a physical evidence that proved that Koh Tral belongs to Cambodia since the 1st century until now.

Cambodia’s control of Koh Tral

According to Sydney-based lawyer Bora Touch, Cambodia’s rule over Khmer Krom lands, and eventually Koh Tral, dates back many centuries. Mr. Bora Touch stated that a Cambodian Constitution, known as "Kram Srok", which was promulgated in 1615 (Grand Era 1693) under His Majesty Chey Cheystha Reamea Eysaur, clearly lists Khmer Krom provinces, which had control over Koh Tral, and their governors and titles. He went on to state that a French official cartographer, in documenting the region in a map dated 1686, designated delta territories and Koh Tral as parts of Cambodia. He also states that British official cartographer John Crawfurd did also put Kampuchea Krom and Koh Tral under Cambodia’s rule in 1828. In the 1820-1829 Crawfurd's map of Cochin China, Koh Tral was written as "Koh Dral". According to Bora Touch, Crawfurd's predecessor, Alexander Hamilton, who visited Banteay Meas (Hatien) in Cambodia in 1718, called the island "Quadrole" (Koh Tral) in his published account of his journey (A New Account of the East Indies: Giving an Exact and Copious.....Vol 2, p206).
Mr. Bora Touch went on to say that in an internal British official memorandum dated 1778 sent to Governor-General Hastings, Charles Chapman, a British envoy to Cochin China, rightly advised Hastings that “Donai...is properly a province of Cambodia” (J.I.A.E. & A. Vol. 5, 1852). When the French arrived in the late 19th century, Cambodia’s front line was at the Vinh Te Canal, and the delta region up to Dong Nai province still appeared on Southeast Asian maps as a part of Cambodia.
Mr. Bora Touch also claimed that British East India envoy John Crawfurd’s 1828 map of the area is cited by some as evidence of Phu Quoc (Koh Tral) being part of Cambodia rather than Cochin China.

Cambodia’s continuous claims over Koh Tral

Cambodia has consistently laid claims to Koh Tral for over 150 years.
The first claims was in 1856 when King Ang Duong secretly contacted the French Emperor Napoleon III through a French Missionary (Monseigneur Miche), to warn the emperor not to accept the territory of Kampuchea Krom which the Annamite king might offer to him under a colonial rule. King Ang Duong lists the Khmer regions in Annamite hands: the DONAI province was lost 200 years ago but Saigon, Long Ho, Phsar Dek, Mesar, Preah Trapeang, Bassac, Mot Chrouk, Kramounsar,Teuk khmao,Peam, Koh Tral, Tralach. He added: "by chance, if the Annamite would offer any of these lands to yours Majesty, I beg you not to accept them because it belongs to Cambodia".

In 1858, Napoleon III ordered Admiral Doudard De La Grandiere to follow through with King Ang Duong’s request. King Ang Duong died before his request had been followed through. In 1864 King Norodom, King Ang Duong’s son who had just assumed the throne, went to see Grandiere again in Saigon, La Grandiere promise as requested. However, in 1867 a Khmer movement, which was supported by the Vietnamese, demanded Cochin China's independence, So La Grandiere had broken his promise with King Norodom.

The Chronology of Cambodia’s continuous claims over Koh Tral

# 1856: King Ang Duong apprise Mr. de Montigny, French envoy in visit to Bangkok, through the intermediary of Bishop Miche, his intention to yield Koh Tral to France (cf. “The Second [French] Empire of IndoChina”).

# 1863: Establishing the Protectorate of Cambodia, France annexed Kampuchea Krom, made a French colony out of it, and named it “Cochinchine”.

# May 25, 1874: Koh Tral (Phu Quoc) which belonged to Cambodia (under the reign of King Ang Duong) was placed under the administration of the Governor of Cochinchina, i.e. under the administration of France, by the French Protectorate.

# June 16, 1875: Koh Tral is attached to the inspection district of Hatien which was colonized by France. One needs to recall that in 1855, King Ang Duong reminded Napoleon III [first French President (1948-1852), later French Emperor (1852-1870)] that “the territories annexed by Vietnam located between the Western 
branch of the Mekong [River] and the Gulf of Siam (Hatien area) were “actually Cambodian land” (cf. A. Dolphin-Dauphin-Meunier – “History of Cambodia”, pg. 99). Therefore, Koh Tral always remains a Cambodian island, even though it is under the administration of colonial France.

# January 31, 1939: the “Brévié Line” which is not a maritime border demarcation, but rather a line dividing the police and administrative authority “on the islands along the Gulf of Siam” [was established]. By this act, Koh Tral was placed, as it did in 1875, under the French colonial administration of Cochin-Chine. Brévié himself specified that “the territorial dependence of these islands (including that of Phu Quoc) remains entirely reserved”.

# June 04, 1949: In spite of Cambodian protests and the Deferre Motion [the Deferre Motion has been part of the Bill of Transfer of French Cochinchine to Vietnam which spelled out specific rights of the Khmer Krom people], France voted a law allowing the 
attachment of the Cochinchinese territory (Khmer territory) to Vietnam.

# April 24, 1954: at the Geneva Conference, Cambodia still continued to protest against the unjust and uneven transfer of her Cochin-Chinese lands to Vietnam by France, and reserved her right to litigate the case at the United Nations.

# June 07, 1957: Norodom Sihanouk, President of the Council of Ministers, requested in a letter to Lon Nol, then National Defense Minister, to ensure the protection of all islands located along the Gulf of Siam (thus also including Koh Tral), and in particular, the group of islands of Poulo-Pangjang (Khmer name: Koh Krachak Ses; Vietnamese name: Tho Chu), Koh PouloWai (Khmer name: Koh Ach Ses) and Koh Tang.

# December 30, 1957: In his Kret regarding the delimitation of the Cambodian continental shelf, King Norodom Suramarit clearly reaffirmed that Cambodia reserved her retention on her historical rights to Koh Tral (cf. Article 6 of the Kret).

# 1963: In 
the book “Cambodia Geography” published in 1963 by Tan Kim Huon, a Khmer scholar who was also an agricultural engineer and forestry expert, [he indicated that] Koh Tral is indeed a Cambodian island (cf. maps no. 3, 12, and 19).

# 1969: Koh Tral (Phu Quoc) is included in the official list of Cambodian islands published by the Industry and 
Mineral Resources Ministry, and was numbered 61 (on a total of 64 islands).

# July 01, 1972: Following the July 1, 1972 Kret, the Khmer Republic Government maintains its reaffirmation of its sovereignty on its continental shelf and warns oil companies
 against [potential] consequences of any of their actions undertaken in this zone. Koh Tral still remains Cambodian.

# 1975 to End of 1978: Status quo.

# July 07, 1982: Koh Tral (Phu Quoc) and Poulo-Pangjang (Tho Chu) appear in the Vietnamese territory, on a map attached to the “Treaty on the Historical Water Zone between the Popular Republic of Kampuchea and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam”.

The Reality on the Ground

In 1975, the Khmer Rouge briefly occupied the island which found no substantial Vietnamese presence on the island. After Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia in 1979, the invading Vietnamese army had populated the island with ethnic Vietnamese that reached 85,000 inhabitants today.
The Hun Sen government’s affirmation of Vietnamese sovereignty over the island in their 1982 and 1985 border agreements with Vietnam is in contravention of international law. Even the treaty was ratified by the Cambodian parliament and King Sihamoni in 2005 under the so-called Supplemental Treaty, the original treaties were signed with Vietnam as the occupier and Cambodia as the occupied and the king ratified it under coercion by Mr. Hun Sen, who was installed by the Vietnamese occupying forces. Both these treaties are null and void under the terms of the 1991 Paris Peace Agreement as they were signed while Cambodia was occupied by Vietnamese military forces.
The last episode of Kampuchea Krom tragedy took place when the French colonial power ceded the territory to Vietnam on 4th June 1949. Kampuchea Krom, and effectively Koh Tral, was then incorporated into Vietnam, instead of Cambodia, in 1954.
Cambodia’s dreams of reclaiming of the island might be impossible. However, geographically, historically and legally Koh Tral was and still is a Cambodian island because it was ceded to Vietnam by Cambodia’s colonial power against international law and amid Cambodia’s repeated protests.



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Anonymous said...

No Jeff, according to Hamilton, the pirates infested the Coast of Cambodia, preventing the Khmer people from populating the several islands. So it safe to say that the pirates had used those islands including Koh Tral according to your understanding as their safe havens. So the islands were in fact not unpopulated at all except that the islands were used by the pirates. Who were those pirates? That is the question to be answered. Just because the Chinese Mac sought help from the Vietnamese does not mean that the sovereignty over the island was automatically transferred to the Vietnamese. On the contrary, it is China instead who should have a claim of the island, according to your logic.

Anonymous said...

Nobody has ever claimed that Vietnam claimed Koh Tral prior to the Mac Cuu period. I've not disputed that it was claimed by Cambodia and at some point settled by Khmers. I've reiterated twice this silly argument about Koh Dud. I'll now do it for a third and last time then say goodbye. THE ONLY THING THAT MATTERS IS THAT CRAWFURD USED THE NAME HE BELIEVED WAS THAI AND NOT THE NAME HE KNEW WAS KHMER. IT'S CURRENT MEANING OR LACK THEORY IS IRRELEVANT. Your insistence on using the Crawfurd map despite the error being clearly established tells me I'm wasting my time here. Good luck. Jeff

Anonymous said...

To Khmerization,

Just like the states of Alaska and Hawaii non-contiguous to the mailand USA, "Koh Dud" or Koh Dutch in the Khmer language means the island not connected to the main land Cambodia. So I agree with you on this point. Why do these books keep using the term "CoChin Chinese" which Jeff Mudrick defines as "Vietnamese". Aren't the Vietnamese claiming that they are the oldest in Southeast Asia and are always known as the Viets or Yueh or Kinh? So when does this term "Vietnamese" come into use?

Anonymous said...

But Jeff, Don't just leave yet! You were the one who started the fire with your WORDS, and now you need to stick around to clarify other unsettling issues. According to Crawfurd whom you use as a resource to back up your position, the term 'Koh Dud" is a Siamese term meaning "far off island". However, according to Khmerization, the English translation, "far off island" does not translate to "Koh Dud" in the Thai language. However, Koh Dud is similar to the Khmer term of Koh Dutch meaning disconnected island. For example, "Mean koh toche toche dach dach pii knear"= There are smaller islands disconnected/separated from one another. You can check with your so-called fake Khmer family and Khmer friends if you have any since you hate them all as sh*t.

Anonymous said...

Jeff Mudrick's time line of the occupation of Koh Tral:

Pre Angkor era, Khmer occupation, it was Koh Tral.

Angkor era, Khmer occupation, it was Koh Tral

Cambodia as Thailand's protectorate, Koh Tral was changed into Koh Dud.

Chinese adventurer called Mac got the permission from the Khmer King to develop the island and the name Koh Tral stays.

Then the Vietnamese came and reclaimed the "unpopulated" island and named it "Fu Kok"

Jeff Mudrick's conclusion: Since the island was inhabited and claimed by the Vietnamese firt, then the island should be in the Vietnamese possession. But wait, the Chinese Mac and his Chinese villages and other Chinese remains are still on the island. Shouldn't China claim the island instead? After all, in the Qatar vs Brahrain case the victor inherits the island that is far way from their coast, in this case Koh Tral is so far away from China and since Chinese artifacts are found there predating the Vietnamese then Koh Tral should be of China. LOL. Hello China, come and get your rightful belonging of Koh Tral from the occupying Vietnamese. You have the means to do it. LOL.

Anonymous said...

Where can I find a good book to read about the Chinese adventurer Mac developing Koh Tral? I thought he was only given permission by the Khmer King to settle and develop the Peam area, but I couldn't find anything about the permission to develop the island of Koh Tral.

Anonymous said...

If you are wondering about what impact affecting Koh Tral island through the illegal "The 1982 Cambodia-Viet Nam Arrangement" which Jeff Mudrick interprets to "mostly had to do with territorial waters and other border issues", read this info below from the book "Beyond Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea” by Robert C. Beckman

Under the heading "Sovereignty Disputes over Offshore Features", the description is written as follows: "he 1982 Cambodia-Viet Nam Arrangement is “in principle” an agreement for joint development. Prior to the conclusion of the 1982 Cambodia-Viet Nam arrangemen, the continental shelf claims of both Cambodia and Viet Nam in the 1970s were based on full sovereignty over Koh Tral, Koh Ses Island and Koh Thmei Islands and the seaward Islands of Koh Wai and the Tho Chu/Panjang Archipelago. The effect of the 1982 Cambodia-Viet Nam Arrangement (which includes an agreement to jointly develop resources) was that Cambodia effectively gave up its claim over Koh Tral Island.

Thank goodness, those treaties were illegal.

Anonymous said...

1:18, so Cambodia still have continuous claim over Koh Tral Island.

Anonymous said...

I heard that Koh Tral was given to the Vietnamese because the French thought ‘Girl Vietnam more pretty.’

Anonymous said...

Anonymous Anonymous said...

Jeff Mudrick wrote, "My friend you are digging the grave of your own cause with your sloppy scholarship. The Alexander Hamilton journal which you now cite in your blatantly inaccurate OP, clearly says that at the time of his visit in 1718 that the island of Quadrol was UNINHABITED. He says it had been abandoned for fear of pirates."

Well Jeff, Alexander Hamilton also wrote about the islands off the coast of Cochin China and described them as "uninhabited" as well. What do you say to that? At least Alexander implied that if it were not the presence of the Sea Pirates called Saleeters the Khmer would be populating the island of Koh Tral in great number already. The Khmer fear of the enemies coming from the sea was not new to the Khmer. During the Water Chenla Period, the Javanese Sailendra navy attacked and invaded Water Chenla successfully. It even subjugated Water Chenla for some years also. The Saleeters were obviously not of Khmer origin but they could strike fear into the Khmer people's hearts. Crawfurd wrote this about the Saleeters, "The Saleeters are evidently identical with the people called by the Portuguese writers Cellates and Saletes. Who these Cellates were is certain enough. The word is a Portuguese formation, from the Malay word Salat, a strait or frith, and at full length in this language would be orang-salat, or men of the narrow sea,” of the present time, famous all over the Archipelago for their predatory habits. They are correctly described by De Barros, who calls them “a people who dwell on the sea, and whose occupation it is to rob and to fish.”

Anonymous said...

How incredible it is to see human nature at his worst state here! How stupid an American can be to start a debate like this in a country that obviously has personality and ego issues, how infantile Khmer people can be when speaking about their nation or land or ethnicity.
Come on guys, who gives a fuck of any country, any territory? Didn't you learn buddhism? We only live for a limited period of time on this earth and there are so great things to consider, other than talking about nationalism, races, politics. Just ignore your so called leaders, they just want your money. Don't play their game. A nation is meaningless, flags are just fabrics and territories just playgrounds for dogs to pee.

Anonymous said...

Cambodia is firmly under Mr. Hun Sen's leadership. He is not interest in pursuing the impossible dream such as Koh Tral. Instead, he chooses to bring peace and stability to Cambodia for everyone's rise out of poverty.

So far, the opposition wants power and relies on the logic, "Elect me, I will get Koh Tral back for Cambodia." That's a very bad strategy move to announce Vietnam about their intention. Really, if you want to accomplish something against the enemy, why would you let the enemy knows about your plan.

I would not say the opposition is dumb but rather devious and clever. They must trump up their plan to the people go gather the support. Such combination is very bad for the followers. It's a lost cause.

Based on the last election in May of 2014, Mr. Hun Sen and CPP won more than 3 quarters of the local election. The majority of the people always remembered their hero, Mr. Hun Sen who save Cambodia from the jaws of Khmer Rouges.

I really don't see the opposition can do much except continue to disrupt Mr. Hun Sen's plan to bring the people out of poverty. Don't forget the opposition's demand for $160 minimum wage.

Mr. Hun Sen wants to keep the minimum wage at $100 a month so that more jobs will come into Cambodia for the Cambodian migrant workers to come home. The opposition demands a $160 rate to drive away jobs from Cambodia to ruin Mr. Hun Sen. Many countries including India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and even some local in Vietnam as minimum wage below $100. In particular, Bangladesh and Myanmar have rates of $65 and $45 respectively.

It is very blatant to see the opposition playing games against Mr. Hun Sen. It is sad to see some Khmer not realizing this.

At this moment, Mr. Hun Sen has the recognition of the world, including President Obama. He was given so many honor awards, degrees around the globe. Mr. Hun Sen has the total loyalty from the Cambodian police, army. He has the blessing from Cambodian Royal as well as the Cambodian Buddhist's top monk.

The opposition only can gather some violent and extremist Khmer supporters. That's about it.


P.S. Here on the forum, you can see a guy like me would choose to support Mr. Hun Sen. I am a nobody having no connection with any Cambodian politics. I am just a poster. I see through Mr. Hun Sen's plan to bring Cambodia out of poverty. I also see through the opposition's plan to grab power by disrupting Mr. Hun Sen's plan.

You don't see I post anywhere else except on a couple Khmer forums and Topix. But rest assure, I am very talented. I have boasted before: My learning rate is more than 100 times faster than any Khmer. I have already read a couple thousand books. My knowledge is vastly superior than the entire Khmer community. Challenge me!

Anonymous said...

Since it has been established that the map posted at the top of the page is incorrectly captioned, why hasn't Khmerization corrected the error?

The map does not say 'Koh Dral'.' As can be seen very clearly on the high resolution copy provided by Murdock that it says ''KOH DUD'' and that this is further confirmed in Crawford's journal.

If Khmerization is running an honest debate over this issue here, they need to correct this prominent error. It might give some less than careful readers the incorrect impressions that the map actually says 'Koh Dral', which it does not.

While I understand that some commenters might try knowingly inject false information into the debate, the forum itself should be above such dishonesty.

Anonymous said...

Jeff Mudrick's proof:
showing Koh Dud, Phu Kwok label for the island in contention.

The Khmer's caption about the same map and the island in the article is wrong:
The above is the 1820-1829 John Crawfurd's map of Cochin China showing Koh Tral, which was written as "Koh Dral". So it was a Khmer island back in 1820. According to Bora Touch, Crawfurd's predecessor, Alexander Hamilton, who visited Banteay Meas

So, are the Khmer willing to correct error. Was it a mistake or a deliberate lie?

Khmerization said...

Dear Readers,

Thanks for participating in the lively debate about the ownership Koh Tral. There are divergent and opposing views which will never end if I don't close the debate. So, I, hereby, declare that the debate is closed. Should new info. of the topic emerge in the future I shall open another thread for discussion, but not under this article. Cheers!

Kmenhwatt said...

I agree with you above commentator; Jeff Mudlick is admired by all dirty- yuon caloum=Ka'duoy; thatwise,he risked his reputation to defend the theives,killers and encroacherers ( yuon) despite 58,000 of his fellow men/women were staughtered by Yiekcong during the war from 1969-1975 era.Please don't pay attention to this 'Infantile Psychiatrist' he was a low- life loser!...Racist monger full of western syndrome low life scumbag!

Anonymous said...

Cambodia's POSSIBLE Dreams : Koh Tral

Around the world, Cambodia has more friends and less foes than Vietnam.
To start Cambodia should bring the Koh Tral to the UN, but not as a single issue but rather parts of numerous infringements and violations of the Paris Peace Accord of 1991.

If Vietnam refuses to rectify its obligations under the Accord, request the UN for severe sanction against Vietnam and its key leaders.

Anonymous said...

Cambodia's POSSIBLE Dreams : Koh Tral

Around the world, Cambodia has more friends and less foes than Vietnam.

Since Koh Tral issue is a civil matter and the ICJ requires both the plaintiff and the defendant agree for the Court to hear the case, a viable solution is for Cambodia to bring the dispute to the UN.
Bringing the case to the World Body not as a single issue but as parts of numerous infractions and violations by the signatory Vietnam of the UN brokered Peace Accord of 1991.
Should Vietnam refuse to rectify and right its wrongs, Cambodia can and should mobelize the UN to impose severe sanctions against Vietnam and its key leaders.

In addition, Cambodia can unilaterally prosecute Vietnam's responsable leaders for crimes and atrocities such as the K5 Plan at the ICC.

We can make " impossible " dreams possible !

A Khmer Patriot

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